Tuesday, April 12, 2016

FEMA firefighters manual has entire chapter on alien invasion?

Fire Officer’s Guide to Disaster Control
William M Kramer and Charles Bahme
Published by Fire Engineering Books and Videos, Saddle Brook, NJ
641 pages
ISBN 0-912212-26


  FEW RESIDENTS of the United States, except for those in Hawaii, have 
experienced an enemy attack on their hometown in this century; some 
think they  have. The Great Los Angeles Air Raid of February 26, 1942, 
began at 2:25  A.M. when the US Army announced the approach of hostile 
aircraft and  the cities air raid warning system went into effect for 
the first time in World  War II. "Suddenly the night was rent by 
sirens. Searchlights began to sweep  the sky. Minutes later gun crews 
at Army forts along the coast line began  pumping the first of
1,433 rounds of ack-ack into the moonlight. Thousands  of volunteer 
air raid wardens tumbled from their beds and grabbed their  boots and 
helmets. Citizens awakened to the screech of sirens and, heedless  of 
the blackout warning, began snapping on their lights . . . The din 
continued  for two hours. Finally the guns fell silent. The enemy, 
evidently, had  been routed. Los Angeles began to taste the 
exhilaration of its first military victory. "(1)



   In this chapter we will now turn our attention to the very real 
threat posed by Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs), whether they exist 
or not. The  well-documented and highly publicized War of the Worlds 
radio drama by  Orson Welles shows how even a perceived existence to 
alien creatures can  cause very real disaster-like conditions and 
panic among a given populace.  In addition, if the apparent visits by 
alien beings and their space vehicles  should pose any type of threat, 
it will, as always, be the fire service that  is called upon to 
provide the first line of life-saving defense and disaster mitigation.

   On April 25,1991, radio station KSHE in St. Louis, Missouri was 
fined  $25,000 by the Federal Communications Commission for 
broadcasting a  mock warning of a nuclear attack during the Persian 
Gulf War. The seriousness  with which the FCC treated this case is 
indicative of the very real panic  that can be created from even 
illusionary or fictional phenomena. Certainly if these unexplainable 
events become more prevalent, the possibility of  panic could be even 
greater; and again, the fire department will be the  agency called 
upon to handle the situation.(35) Hence, as we near the year  2000 and 
move beyond, any comprehensive disaster plan should address  the 
potential for panic and other deleterious effects that might befall a
populated area when unexplainable phenomena occur. We will see, as we 
continue  our discussion in this chapter, that widespread blackouts,  
communication disruptions, and other potentially disastrous conditions  
have been linked directly to UFO sightings. Hence, fire service 
leaders who  want to ensure that their disaster planning is complete 
will not neglect an appendix to outline those things that could be 
done in preparation for the  occurrence of such phenomena.

  Throughout this book, many of the references to actual events are 
based  on the experiences of both of the authors. However, in this 
area of UFOs  and their potential, we are relying largely on the 
research and experiences  of Charles Bahme. Chuck has made a 
considerable study of this subject and is acquiring many publications 
and VCR tapes to augment his library on  this and related phenomena. 
His interest in UFOs was greatly heightened  when Congress in 1969 
adopted a law (14 CFR Ch. V Part 1211--Extraterrestrial  Exposure) 
which gave the NASA Administrator the arbitrary discretion to  
quarantine under armed guard any object, person, or other form  of 
life which has been extraterrestrially exposed. The very fact that our
congressmen believed there was a necessity for such drastic authority 
made  Chuck wonder if they had only our astronauts in mind when they 
adopted  it. Could it be applied to anyone who has had a UFO 
encounter? Whether  it has or not is not likely to be a topic for 
public dissemination.


The subject of UFOs (Unidentified Flying Objects) was not included in  
previous editions of this book. The first edition was the Handbook of  
Disaster Control which Chuck personally published in 1952 following 
his  release from active naval duty in the Korean War. Although his 
services in  the conflict as Security Coordinator for the Chief of 
Naval Operations  involved the creation of a worldwide disaster 
control organization for the  protection of the physical properties of 
the Navy, it must be admitted that  the directives approved for this 
new organization did not reflect any significant  concern for a flying 
saucer threat to its shore establishment. That was in the 1950s. Now 
that we are in the 1990s it is doubtful that the UFO  potential would 
be brushed off so lightly by our military security forces.  This 
change of attitude was evidenced as far back as December 24, 1959,  
when the Inspector General of the Air Force issued the following 
Operations  and Training Order: "Unidentified Flying Objects--
sometimes treated lightly by the press and referred to as 'Flying 
Saucers'--must be rapidly and accurately identified as serious Air 
Force business...."(36)

  There is no uncertainty about the reality of the war between nations 
on our planet and the disastrous effects of military actions. The 200 
sorties  flown every hour against Iraq in the Persian Gulf provided 
ample evidence  of global war's destructive power. On the other hand, 
there are many persons who may believe that a discussion of the 
theoretical harm that could be  caused by a real or imaginary invasion 
of UFOs would be 'far out!" But this  is not so for the thousands of 
witnesses of unexplained aerial phenomena.  To them it is also serious

  Chuck's interest in UFOs commenced during the early morning hours of 
August 26,1942, while he was roller skating from his house to the 
nearest  fire station a few blocks away; the wail of sirens had 
signaled his recall to  fire duty, and with the stringent blackout 
orders in effect. driving was not  wise; besides, it was much more 
exciting to be out in the open where he  could see the spectacular 
aerial "fireworks" that filled the heavens all  around him. Few 
residents of the U.S. had ever experienced a real or imaginary  
invasion of UFOs like that which occurred in what has become known  as 
"The Los Angeles Air Raid of 1942." The Army announced the approach  
of hostile aircraft and the city's air raid warning system went into 
effect for  the first time in World War II. The defense to this 
"attack" is described in  dramatic terms in the opening paragraph of 
this chapter.

    But what enemy had been routed? No one ever knew. All the fire 
fighters  saw in the sky were the 15 or 20 moving "things" which 
seemed to change  course at great speed apparently unaffected by the 
flak from bursting shells  all around them. Rumors that one had been 
shot down were never verified, nor was the explanation that these zig-
zagging invaders were weather balloons  ever taken seriously. In any 
event, for Chuck, that unforgettable episode  aroused a continuing 
interest in UFOs, rivalling his professional fields  of law and fire 
protection. The fact that he subsequently was a member of  a group 
whose sighting of a flight of UFOs was authenticated by airport  radar
helped to sustain that interest.


   With no intention of trying to prove or disprove the authenticity 
of the  numerous UFO encounters often related by very credible 
witnesses including  airline and military pilots, astronauts, police 
officers, fire fighters, members of Congress, and even a U.S. 
President, the balance of this chapter will  present a brief history 
and nature of UFOs and their alleged occupants; their  widespread 
sightings over the globe since ancient times; their appearance,  
propulsion origin, and possible motives for continuing reconnaissance.

   A quick look at some of the classic accounts of encounters 
documented in numerous foreign and U.S. publications might help us 
judge the magnitude  of their threat, if any, to social stability, 
and, if deemed desirable, propose a fire service plan for coping with 
some of the conceivable catastrophic effects that UFOs could produce 
on cities and densely populated areas.

  For readers who already have made up their minds that there is no 
such thing as a UFO notwithstanding the overwhelming evidence to the 
contrary,  it should be pointed out that there is circumstantial 
evidence that disastrous  effects have already been attributed to UFO 
activity in more than one nation, including the United States.


   William Shakespeare put a fitting observation in the mouth of 
Hamlet,  the Prince of Denmark, that went like this: "There are more 
things in heaven  and earth, Horatio, than are dreamed of in your 
philosophy." Whether  Hamlet was referring to those strange lights or 
objects that appear in the  sky or near the ground and have no known 
cause, we will never know, but  the World Book Encyclopedia defines 
such things as UFOs.(37)

   Several theories have been propounded as to what they might be. 
Some  scientists believe that they are of extraterrestrial origin--
coming from other  planets. Military officers conjecture that they 
might be alien aircraft. Some  attribute them all to natural causes, 
such as meteors, comets, sun dogs, light reflections, marsh gas, ball 
lightning, even though they must admit that scientists  cannot explain 
all UFO reports in that manner. Still others are  inclined to believe 
that they may be forms from other dimensions which can  materialize 
and dematerialize at will perhaps by making a wavelength or frequency 
transition so as to become invisible to humans. Some believe they  are 
time travelers from the future.


   Dr. J. Allen Hynek, Northern University Professor Emeritus of  
Astronomy and an advisor to the Air Force's Blue Book Project adopted 
a  very simple classification system based solely upon the manner of  

   1. Nocturnal lights
   2. Daylight disks
   3. Close encounters (day or night)
   4. Radar readings.

   He concluded that this system tells us nothing about the nature of 
the  UFOs, but can suggest a means for gathering data.(38) He found 
that while  a large number of such reports were readily identifiable 
by trained investigators  as misconceptions of known objects or 
events, a small residue (about  1.000) were not. These came from 
credible witnesses from such widely separated places as Canada. 
Australia. South America, and Antarctica. He concludes  with: 
"Although I know of no hypothesis that adequately covers the  
mountainous evidence, this should not and must not deter us from 
following  the advice of Schroedinger: to be curious, capable of being 
astonished, and eager to find out."(39) Dr. Hynek has an excellent,
well-illustrated article  on UFOs in a 1982 book which gives a 
detailed history of the UFO sightings,  together with the reports of 
some well-known people who made them, including President Jimmy Carter 
while governor of Georgia.(40)


    Witnesses have described the shapes of UFOs as anything varying 
from  a sphere to a boomerang. Some have resembled flying saucers with 
a lid;  others a glowing tube; some as semi-spherical with colored 
apertures; some  with reddish-orange glows, or fire-like or sparking 
discharges. Incredible  speed and maneuverabilities not attainable by 
aircraft of any kind are commonly  observed. Many of the books and 
articles in Appendix H have excellent  photographs of these 
unexplained visitors--photos that have been  checked by experts for 
their authenticity.


   For hundreds of years mysterious objects in the sky and strange 
moving  lights have been reported by many people, including the 
military pilots in  World War II who called them foo fighters, ("Where 
there's Foo, there's  Fire"). In the middle of the 1900s flying 
saucers were increasingly observed in the United States and other 
countries.  Scientists at the University of Colorado hired by the Air 
Force from 1966 to 1968 to study this type of aerial phenomena could 
explain most of the UFO reports as a star (Venus), meteor, planet, 
balloon, rocket, artificial satellite,  etc. Sometimes atmospheric 
conditions, aircraft exhaust trails, or  unusual lighting conditions 
may produce optical illusions that observers  thought were UFOs. After 
investigating more than 12,000 reports, the U.S.  Air Force was unable 
to explain where the unexplained UFOs come from,  but apparently 
concluded that the national security was not threatened by  them.(41) 
The emphasis of the university's team, headed by Edward U.  Condon, 
seemed to be more concerned with the establishment of the emotional  
stability or instability of those who reported the sightings than with  
other evidence.

   Psychiatrists have examined the witnesses who claimed to have 
encountered   UFOs and even been taken aboard their craft, such as the 
two shipyard  workers in Mississippi, and found that they are not 
unbalanced people.(42)  "They're not crackpots. There was definitely 
something here that was not  terrestrial."(43) Dr. J. Allen Hynek 
agreed, and added. "Where they are coming from and  why they are here 
is a matter of conjecture. but the fact that they were here  on this 
planet is beyond a reasonable doubt."(44)

   The Air Force. after 20 years of being deluged with UFO sightings 
and  spending millions of dollars on their investigation, decided to 
drop the  inquiry business and turned the project over to a 
Kensington, Maryland, group called NICAP (National Investigation 
Committee on Aerial  Phenomena). This left NASA (National Aeronautics 
and Space  Administration) with part of the task of trying to run UFO 
sighting reports, including many by its own Apollo and Skylab 
astronauts. By 1974 over a  score of astronauts saw and photographed 
UFOs during their flights beyond  the earth's atmosphere.

   Early in the Apollo 11 mission, which culminated in the moon walk, 
astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, and Michael Collins reported  
sightings of what seemed to be a UFO during the first half of their 
flight  to the lunar surface. There were many more sightings by U.S. 
and Soviet  Astronauts. On November 11,1966, Gemini XII astronauts Jim 
Lovell and  Edwin Aldrin said that they saw four UFOs linked together, 
and on October  12, 1964, three Russian astronauts aboard Voskod 
reported that they were  surrounded by a "formation of fast-moving 
disc-shaped objects."(45)


   In addition to NICAP, some of the other organizations that study 
UFO  phenomena are MUFON (Mutual UFO Networks), CAUS (Citizens Against  
UFO Secrecy), GSW (Ground Saucer Watch), CUFOS (the Center for UFO  
Studies), and APRO (Aerial Phenomena Research Organization), an 
Arizona  nonprofit scientific and educational organization, founded in 


   In their book UFOs Over America, authors Jim and Carol Lorenzo 
charge  that the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) has been closely 
involved in the  collection and suppression of UFO information. 
"Witnesses to the phenomena  have been bribed, coerced, and threatened 
by the CIA, who wanted valuable evidence given to them alone."(47) One 
reason given is that military  intelligence may view the UFOs as a 
tool of either a known or unknown  potential enemy. "If these vehicles 
prove evasive and surreptitious, all the  more reason to suspect
them.... the probability looms large that the minds  behind these 
vehicles may well be gathering intelligence of their own."(48)

  Another reason for secrecy may lie in the hope of obtaining 
knowledge  relating to advanced propulsion methods and anti-gravity 
systems before  other potential enemies on earth may acquire it. 
Hence, though many nations are secretly investigating UFOs, they are 
reluctant to share their findings. Robert Lofton, in his book 
Identified Flying Saucers, claims that the Air  Force became the 
"goat" in the effort of the CIA to debunk many sightings by pilots, 
radar technicians and reliable civilian observers. He thinks that the 
suppression of information about how dangerous UFOs can be is wrong.  
After citing a case where a child was burned over 50 to 60 percent of
her body by a low flying UFO and then taken to an Air Force hospital, 
no one  would explain why her clothes were not burned at the same 
time. He also  describes another burn case in New Mexico and another 
man who recently received a sledge-hammer like blow that knocked him 
unconscious by the force field of a 100-foot diameter UFO. "The public 
ought to be told the danger! . . .  Nothing helps rumors and panic 
more than ignorance."(49)

   Major Donald Keyhoe describes in his book "Aliens from Space: The 
Real Story of Unidentified Flying Objects", the difficulties he had in 
1957 in trying to get the truth from government agencies after he was 
director of NICAP, the world's largest UFO research organization with 
over 30 subcommittees in the U.S. and abroad.(50)

   According to some UFOlogists the attempts at cover-up by the CIA 
extend to destruction of evidence that it could not confiscate. 
Apparently some of our nation's important leaders have been denied 
access to some UFO secrets in the possession of an agency of the 
United States, the very existence  of which is classified above top 
secret.(51) Senator Barry Goldwater, a retired Air Force Reserve 
Brigadier General and pilot with many decades of flying experience, 
was quoted as saying "I certainly believe in aliens in space. They may 
not look like us, but I have very strong feelings that they  have 
advanced beyond our mental capabilities." He said he was refused 
permission to check the Air Force files on UFOs and added, "I think 
some highly secret government UFO investigations are going on that we
don't know about--and probably never will unless the Air Force 
discloses  them."(52) He said that he put faith in the reports of the 
Air Force, Navy,  and commercial pilots who reported instances where a 
UFO would fly near  them--right off their plane's wing--and then just 
zoom away at incredible  speeds. "I remember the case in Georgia in 
the 1950s of a National Guard plane going after a UFO and never 
returning. And I recall the case in  Franklin. Kentucky, when four 
military planes investigated a UFO. One of  them exploded in midair 
and no one knows why."(53)

   Unleashed by the policy of Glasnost (greater openness) the Soviet 
media  felt free to include accounts of UFO sightings. A Tuss report 
of October 10,  1989, reported a large shiny ball or disk hovering 
over a Voronezh park; residents  saw the UFO land and three creatures 
similar to human beings  emerged, accompanied by a robot.(54)

   Apparently the Russians felt no need to suppress this report which 
was poked fun at in Newsweek and Time magazines(55) but not in U.S. 
News  and World Report: "A scant few decades ago, both the U.S. 
government and  the media treated flying objects as no laughing 
matter--which even  Congress looked into. In 1966, Representative Ford 
responded to a rash of  sightings in his home state of Michigan by 
calling for, and getting, a House hearing on UFOs."(56)


   Many reasons have been advanced for the purpose of the UFOs visits  
to our planet. Although some of the persons who apparently have been 
the  subjects of genetic investigation, such as the family of Whitley 
Streiber may  not agree, the majority of those who have studied 
possible UFO visitors feel that they are friendly. Mr. Streiber 
described his experience as terrifying,  and believes that these 
"little figures with eyes that seem to stare into the  deepest core of 
being are asking for something. Whatever it is, it is more  than 
simple information. The goal does not seem to be a sort of clear and 
open exchange that we might expect; whatever may be surfacing, it 
wants  far more than that. It seems to me that it seeks the very depth 
of soul; it seeks  communion."(57)

   From the thousands of reports he has studied. William Spaulding, 
aerospace  engineer and head of the Arizona-based Ground Saucer Watch,  
believes that a pattern indicates that UFOs are here on a surveillance 
mission:  the fact that a majority of sightings occur around our 
military installations, research and development areas leads to the 
conclusion that a methodical study is being made of the earth and its 
defensive and offensive  capabilities. "The phenomena is not unlike 
our own space explorations:  scout ship survey: soil samples; 

   In his book Incident at Exeter, John Fuller discusses the seeming 
affinity  of UFOs for electrical power lines in the northeastern part 
of the United  States. In a later section of this chapter dealing with 
the effects of UFOs on  our terrestrial activities, we will see how 
this affinity may have been responsible for causing 36 million people 
to lose power over an area of 8,000 square  miles.(59)

   Because of our recent adventures into space, there are some who 
speculate that UFOs are more concerned with what we will do there than 
in  settling here. In any event, the Air Force's official publication 
(issued by the  Government Printing Office 1968) called Flying Objects 
says that 'No UFO  has been determined to represent a threat to our 
national security.' That conclusion, however, should not rule out less 
disastrous consequences than the  overthrow of our government.


   Regardless of its past evaluations, the Air Force could be wrong 
about  a number of things. "It can't even guess within a couple of 
billion dollars  what one of its planes is going to cost; maybe, 
despite the skepticism of the  scientists and other investigators, the 
UFOs sent from other planets do exist  and have visited earth."(60) 
And maybe they have exhibited some destructive effects, whether or not 
intentionally in every instance, which we need  to consider when 
drafting a plan for coping with an emergency situation  where UFOs are 
involved. Some of these documented effects are as follows.


    The two principal hazards noted with relation to UFOs have been 
attributed   to powerful electrical fields which they can project in a 
general or  localized area and the psychological effects they have 
produced on the general  populace or individual contacts.


   The disruption of air and ground travel has often been reported in 
the  presence of UFOs. The ignition systems of auto and aircraft 
engines have  apparently been affected by energized force fields to 
such an extent as to  stop their operation; the headlights and radios 
have also ceased to function.  Here are a couple of examples. In 
Buenos Aires, on March 29, 1978, "A strange force shut off their 
engine and headlights of their Citroen CG, lifted  it 15 feet off the 
road, then set it down a minute later and 75 miles to the  north." The 
driver had noticed a yellow and violet light shining in his rear  view 
mirror while driving the last leg of a long stock car race, and he 
realized that it was approaching too fast to be a competitor. A month 
later a  Colombian bank manager and a navy officer had their car 
headlights go off  when buzzed by a UFO, with the navy man suffering 
temporary paralysis.  Other South American countries in which similar 
actions were reported  around that time included Argentina, Chile, 
Peru, and Uruguay.(61)

  These effects have also been noted to influence the controls and 
instruments  of aircraft, e.g., the pilot of a Piper PH-24 reported 
that his controls  became inoperable when he was approached by three 
disk-shaped objects,  10 to 12 feet in diameter, over Mexico City on 
May 3,1975.(62) Similar cases have been reported by military pilots, 
illustrated by the classic case of the  near mid-air collision of an 
army helicopter with a UFO on October 18,  1973, over Ohio, where not
only did both the UHF and VHF radio wave-  lengths go dead 
temporarily, but the downward movement of the helicopter  with its 
four occupants was levitated upward by a green beam from the UFO  in 
time to prevent its crash into the ground.(63)


   In addition to the impedance of radio transmissions and reception, 
such  as that described in the preceding incident, telephone 
interference has  occurred, illustrated by the chagrin of President 
Lyndon Johnson in having  his conversation from the Texas White House 
cut off while talking to assistants in Washington, D.C.(64) The 
ability to render inoperable all electronic  forms of communications, 
including those that control the launching of  defense weapons 
systems, has been considered within the range of UFO  capability. 
Whether this could extend to the erasing of recorded computer  data 
such as bank records, personnel data, FBI, CIA, and NSA files, along
with critical information of every kind, is not beyond the realm of 


   It has long been suspected that UFOs have the capability of 
blacking out  a city, state, or many states by exerting a force field 
sufficient to overload  the circuits of public and private utility 
installations. "Few things are more  disturbing than to be plunged 
into pitch darkness without warning; it is  dangerous for masses of 
people. It paralyzes cities, blocks highways, stops  trains, leaves 
elevators suspended between floors. In general it simply plays  hell 
with the modern way of life."(65) You would think that the power 
companies  would have achieved sufficient reliability in their high 
tech systems  that a mass failure such as that which blacked out New 
York and New  England in 1965 would never happen--but it did. 
Although, as we have mentioned before, it was known that UFO activity 
was associated with disturbances  with compasses. instruments, 
ignition systems, radios, etc., it was  inconceivable that it could 
also interfere with generation and distribution  of electrical power.
Such a connection was also inferred in November 1953,  when a glowing 
red object went over a residential area of New Haven, Connecticut, 
causing lights to dim out on both sides of the object's path and  then 
come on when it went out of sight.

   Power failures were also reported in association with UFOs in 
Brazil in  1957 to l959~ Rome, Italy, in 1958; and Mexico in 1965. 
Likewise, in  Uberlandia, where the power station operators promptly 
closed the circuits  when the UFO apparently caused them to open, it 
did no good, and they  were unable to restore the power until the UFO 

   "The Granddaddy of all blackouts to date was the stygian blanket 
that  fell over 30 million people in the northeastern corner of the 
U.S. during the  early evening rush hour period on November 9, 
1965."(66) Relay services  that were supposed to automatically 
transfer the load in case of failure in  one area to an alternate 
source malfunctioned. Military communications relying on public power 
without alternate backup systems also failed, but  communications were 
operable to make a quick public announcement that  there was no 
military emergency. Though it was largely over by the next  morning, 
the official explanation about a malfunctioning small device in a  
Canadian hydroelectric generating plant never accounted for the 
failure of  millions of dollars worth of electronic devices to shift 
the load when the breakdown occurred.


    Airplane pilots reported that UFOs were being chased across 
Pennsylvania about 4:30 P.M., and electronics and construction 
engineers  who were driving in the area of the Syracuse airport saw 
UFOs moving  about 5:30 P.M., just prior to the Great Blackout. A 
veteran flight instructor  who had been flying over Syracuse on a 
training flight saw a glowing globe  over the power lines leading to 
the Niagara Falls generating plant. Hundreds  of others saw the 
glowing object in the sky on the night of the big power  failure.

   That was on November 9th. On December 2nd, about 700,000 persons  
in Texas, New Mexico, and Mexico also had their power fail. It was 
said to  have originated in a regular failure in El Paso; then on 
December 5th, three  nights later. 40,000 homes plus military 
installations in the area of East  Texas were also blacked out--
overloaded! Missile grounds (White Sands),  Fort Bliss, Holloman Air 
Force Base, and numerous airports were all blacked  out (with no 
emergency power backup), and this was when President  Johnson's 
telephone call to the White House in Washington, D.C. was cut  off. In 
response to his request for an explanation, President Johnson was told  
that his calls were fed into a cable system that went dead when the 
surge  of power caused by the El Paso regulator blow-up hit it, and 
the backup batteries didn't work. Though it may be debatable whether 
the above cases of  electrical transmission failure were merely
coincidences with UFO activity,  an incident on April 18,1962, 
involving a UFO that had been tracked from  New York, through Kansas 
to Eureka, Utah, was well documented. The Air  Force spokesman 
admitted that the object had landed, and during the 42 minutes that it 
was on the ground near the power station there was no power,  but it 
was restored when the UFO left. The object was pursued by jet 
interceptors summoned from Phoenix and Stead Field in Reno until it 
exploded  over the Mesquite Range in Nevada in a brilliant glare that 
was visible over  five states.(67)


   The second major disastrous effect that UFO activity, real or 
imagined, can have on the populace, is the creation of fear, panic, 
flight, and  all kinds of irrational behavior. We have mentioned 
already the rather  well-documented case of hysterical contagion and 
mass hysteria created  by War of the Worlds, the radio drama by Orson 
Welles about an invasion of  Martians. It was broadcast on Halloween 
of 1938 during the period of  the invasions of Germany into Austria 
and Japan into China. "The drama, realistically presented in the form 
of news bulletins and interviews  concerning an alien spaceship 
landing in New Jersey, resulted in  many kinds of hysterical actions, 
including thousands of panic-stricken  phone calls, wildly fleeing
automobiles, and impromptu shot gun  brigades."(68)

   Though most persons reporting UFOs do not interpret them as 
personal  threats, it is possible that some of the large volume of 
reports may  be attributable to hysterical contagion. In any case, one 
of the reasons  often cited for the tight secrecy on government UFO 
research findings is  the need to prevent the possible panic that a 
revelation of the truth  might arouse. Rumors that people were being 
abducted, dematerialized,  burned, made radioactive, rounded up and 
impounded, liquidated with ray guns and lasers or shipped off to Mars 
or Venus might well give rise  to fear--fear of the unknown. Hysteria 
could cause frightened persons to  imagine that their water was 
poisoned, the air contaminated with undetectable  but lethal aerosols 
or nerve gases. With hundreds of UFO squadrons  zooming across the
landscape from California to New York, Toronto to  Mexico City, 
communications disrupted, widespread power failures,  airports and 
railroads paralyzed, highways turned into giant parking lots of 
immobilized vehicles full of terrified motorists, the problem of 
restoring  order and sanity would be a tremendous challenge to all of 
the emergency  services, assuming their personnel would remain calm, 
detached.  and able to resist the human impulse to put the safety and 
well being of  their own families ahead of the public's. To make 
matters worse, some of the more excitable gun owners might be tempted 
to rush out Rambo fashion, and in utter disregard of the damage that 
falling bullets might  cause innocent residents below their fallout,
start firing at the evasive  objects regardless of the range.


    The force field affects on the physical environment--
communication,  transportation, illumination, and computerized data 
storage--have  already been considered. We might have added that some 
physical  effects have been observed at locations where UFOs have 
landed--  circular patterns of crops destroyed by heat or radiation 
and baking or sterilization of the soil at the site.

   On a more practical basis there may be grounds for concern that 
more than just the environment can be adversely affected by UFO  
actions. While pursuing UFOs, military aircraft have disappeared in  
mid-air, exploded, and suffered harassment. Persons on the ground have  
sustained serious burns, paralysis, and "blows" from a force field, 
radiated  emissions, or rays and beams that have been described like 
that of  a "stun-gun"(69)

   In 1980, three witnesses saw a red ball of light hovering above  
houses in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, when suddenly a bolt of blue light  
shot down and two houses burst into flames.(70) An Indiana man saw a  
bright light flash pass his window; the power went off in his house so  
he went outside to investigate and found a brilliantly lit object 
hovering  above him; when he started to walk toward it his body 
commenced to  tingle and he was unable to move until the object 
disappeared. A similar tingling sensation swept over another man in 
Lvnn, Massachusetts. one  night when he approached a domed object with
a red glowing cone rising  from a parking lot. He too was immobile 
until the object moved out  of sight. Some believe that even animals 
may be at risk by UFOs; in trying  to account for the death of 15 
ponies, the leader of an investigative  team believed they were 
crushed by the anti-gravity field of a flying saucer  as it took 

   Thus, UFOs may not only have the power to control some of our  
military and industrial establishment's highly technical scientific 
hardware,  they may also possess the ability to impose pain and 
control over  people who attempt to attack them, even to the extent of 
"liquidating"  them in one way or another.


    In view of the fact that many UFOlogists believe that we are fast  
approaching a time when overt landings of UFOs will become less 
remarkable,  and in the absence of our knowing whether their visits 
are friendly  or hostile, it would not be remiss to give some thought 
to the part that fire  departments might play in the event of the 
unexpected arrival of UFOs in  their communities. For example, what 
would be your course of action as an  incident commander at the scene 
of a school ground where a UFO has  crashed into the boiler room, 
rupturing a fuel line, and ignition has occurred  in the spilling oil, 
endangering the occupants of the craft who are trapped  in the 
wreckage? If your rescue attempts are successful, and two of the five  
small alien creatures are injured but still alive, how do you dispose 
of the dead and treat the survivors? How would the presence of 
children on the  school grounds affect your actions? What persons and 
agencies would be  notified?

   The authors have never read any advice on these matters. The 
following  admonition was printed on the inside front jacket of Frank 
Edward's book on flying saucers:

WARNING “Near approaches of UFOs can be harmful to human beings. Do not stand under a UFO that is hovering at low altitude. Do not touch or attempt to touch a UFO that has landed. In either case the safe thing to do is to get away from there very quickly and let the military take over. There is a possibility of radiation danger and there are known cases where persons have been burned by rays emanating from UFOs. Don’t take chances with UFOs!”

   In view of the federal law (cited earlier) empowering NASA's 
administrator  to impound, without a hearing, anyone who touches a UFO 
or its  occupants. it would be inadvisable to make personal contact 
unless you are  willing to submit to NASA's quarantine requirements, 
should the law be  invoked.

   Besides the possible physical effects of approaching a UFO, e.g.. 
burns,  radiation, etc., there may be psychological effects produced 
by force fields  that could induce a hypnotic state in the viewer, 
loss of consciousness, memory relapse, and submission to the 
occupants. Jacques Vallee, author of "The Invisible College" cautions 
that we should consider psychic effects, such as  space-time 
distortions experienced by percipients of craft-like devices  which 
appear to fade away--dematerialize--and then reappear; of alien,  
strange voices or thoughts that may effect involuntary changes in the
manner in which witnesses may react in such circumstances.(72)

   Perhaps the above warnings of Edwards and Vallee are a little too 
cautious  and apprehensive to adopt as a general pattern of conduct in 
every situation.  In the absence of overt acts indicating hostility, 
there may be no  danger in approaching a landing (or landed) UFO with 
a positive, solicitous  attitude of wanting to be of service. This 
nonaggressive mental state may be telepathically sensed by those 
aboard or emerging from the craft; a form  of nonvocal communication 
is a possibility. It goes without saying that any  display of firearms 
or other weapons on your part could be construed as  unfriendly and
likely to thwart your intention of conveying a helpful  attitude.

   In a best case scenario, you may be able to obtain guidance as to 
the  appropriate actions to take, whether of a life-saving nature, 
e.g., in  quelling a fire, abating a spill, and of preservation of 
property, or even in  the reduction of apprehension on the part of 
your response team and the spectators.

   In a less optimistic scenario, you may have engine trouble upon 
approaching the scene, and radio contact could be lost with your 
dispatcher.  If at night, your headlights could go out, the city could 
be blacked out, and  your portable generators may malfunction when you 
attempt to use them  for fans and portable lights. It would certainly 
be an inopportune time for  your comrades to announce that they had 
decided to take their pensions, effective immediately.

   In any event, the incident could provide invaluable experience for 
further  training in coping with rare and difficult emergencies. 
Whatever "inside" information you are able to pass along to your 
fellow officers and citizens of the world might help to alleviate 
unreasonable fear, so that there would  be less likelihood that we 
would ever again experience the panic and hysteria  that was created 
by War of the Worlds a half century ago. Truth is the  best cure for 
the unknown. A list of some of the available books on  Unidentified 
Flying Objects (UFOs) is found in Appendix H.


   Some fire chiefs have little confidence in disaster plans, 
especially those  dealing with UFOs or enemy attack. If you develop a 
plan that sets forth your  responsibilities, resources, organizations, 
supplies information, telephone numbers, and special data that will be 
useful in obtaining help and fulfilling  your role in disaster 
control, commit it to an electronic medium, a computer  with a 
capability for continuous updating through modern word processing.  
Bring it forth when the need requires. With a good plan, good 
leadership, and adequate resources, you may save many lives in any 
disaster, including  attack from possible enemies.


 1. Smith. Iack. "The Night L.A. Bombed." Los Angeles Times,
September 9, 1975, Part 1, p. I .

 2. World Book Encyclopedia, Volume 21, p. 21, Chicago, IL Field
Enterprises Educational Corporation, 1976.

 3. Cloud, Stanley W. "Gathering Storm" in Time, September 3,
1990, pp. 24-28.

 4. "Secret History of the War" in Newsweek, March 18,1991, p.28.

 5. "Snubbing People Power" in U.S. News ~ World Report, April
8,1991, p.38.

 6. World Book Encyclopedia, Vol. 21, p.22. Field Enterprises
Educational Corporation, Chicago, IL 1976.

 7. "Preparing for Iraqi Chemical Warfare," photo and story in
Time, September 3,1990, p.26.

 8. "Steel Rain' in Newsweek, March 18,1991, p.31.

 9. See note 2, volume 9, p. 416.

 10. See Chapter 8 for a more in-depth discussion of terrorism.

 11. Gilliam. l. "A-Bomb Materials Can Be Stolen, Expert Says,"
Los Angeles Times, December ll. 1975, Part Il, p. 1.

 12. Nuclear Blackmail Emergency Response Plan for the State of
California, Officer of Emergency Service, State of California, June 

 13. "After the Storm" in Newsweek, March 11, 1991, pp. 26-29.

 14. Nuclear Attack and Industrial Survival, McGraw-Hill
Publishing Company Special Report, 1962, p.52.

 15. Willenson, K., and L. Norman. "Missiles on the Move" in
Newsweek, February 16, 1976, p.42.

 16. CBS News broadcast, April 1991.

 17. Disaster Planning Guide for Business and Industry, Defense
Civil Preparedness Agency, 1974, p.7, U.S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C.

 18. L. A. Postal Report, Volume 10, No. 9, April 23,1965, p.2,
Los Angeles, CA.

 19. Worldwide Effects of Nuclear War--Some Perspectives, a
Report of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, 1975, p. 5, 
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

 20. Ibid. p. 6.

 21. "Turning Up the Heat on the Greenhouse" in Newsweek, April
22, 1991, p. 69.

 22. See note 19, p. 6.

 23. Seenote 19, p. 5.

 24. "Deadly Meltdown" in Time, May 12, 1986, p. 39.

 25. "A 'Big 50' for Pearl Harbor in USA Today, Thursday, May 9,
1991. p. 3A.

 26. Bahme,.Charles W. Fire Officer's Guide To Disaster Control,
Ist ed., Boston, MA: NFPA 1978, p. 340.

 27. Fire Effects of Bombing Attacks, Technical Manual 9-2,
October 1959, Office of Civil Defense Mobilization, U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

 28. Fire Aspects of Civil Defense, TR-25, Office of Civil
Defense, July 1968, p. 4, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

 29. World Book Encyclopedia, 1991.

 30. Disaster Operations, Defense Civil Preparedness Agency,
1972. p. 29, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

 31. Bruno, Hal. "The Wait May Be Over at FEMA" in Firehouse,
Vol. 15, No. 5 (May 1990) p. 10.

 32. See note 30, p. 40.

 33. The U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. has
several publications available as of 1991 which suggest measures that 
can be taken to safeguard dwellings and other buildings, in 
preparation for a nuclear attack; they illustrate the relative
protection afforded for fallout radiation by various types of
construction and in various locations within a building. Two available 
from the U.S. Government Printing Office, are Fallout Protection and 
ln Time of Emergency, both Office of Civil Defense.

 34. Weldon, Curt. "The Fight for Fire Protection" in Firehouse,
Vol. 16, No. 4 (April 1991), p. 20.

 35. Radio Broadcast on station KSHE, St. Louis, MO, reported on
April 25, 1991.

 36. Edwards, Frank. Flying Saucers--Serious Business, NY: Lyle
Stuart,965. p. 315.

 37. World Book Encyclopedia, World Book Inc., 1988, Vol. 20, p.

 38. Sagan, Carl, and Thornton Page. UFOs--A Scientific Deoate,
Cornell Univ., 1972, p. 44.

 39. Ibid. p. 51.

 40. Readers Digest. Mysteries Of The Unexplained, p. 219.

 41. Steiger, Brad, Editor. Project Blue Book. NY: Ballantine
Books, 1976, p. 170.

 42. Uphoff, Walter and Mary lo, New Psychic Frontiers, Colin
Smyth Ltd., 1975. p. 152.

 43. Ibid., quoting Dr. James Harder, University of California.

 44. Ibid. p. 152.

 45. Macomber, Frank. "UFOs Spotted by Astronauts Still Haven't
Been Identified," Santa Cruz Sentinel, April 17, 1974, p. 30.

 46. APRO's addre$s was given as 3910 E. Kleindale Rd.. Tucson,
Arizona, 85716.

 47. Lorenzen, lim and Coral. UFOs Over America, NY: Signet.
1968, pp. 182 et seq.

 48. Ibid. p. 186.

 49. Lofton, Robert. ldentified Flying Saucers, NY: David McKay
Co., 1968, p. 86.

 50. Kehoe, Donald, Major. Aliens From Space, The Real Story of
the UFOs, New York: Doubleday, 1972.

 51. Friedman, Stanton. Cosmic Watergate, New Realities, 1979;
Hvnek, l. Allen. "UFOs." This World, Aug. 30, 1981, p. 13.

 52. Zullo, Allan A. "I Believe That Earth Has Been Visited By
Creatures From Outer Space," National Enquirer, December 1973.

 53. Ibid. p. 2.

 54. Press Democrat, October 10, 1989, p. A-5; also reported in
weekly news magazines; see notes 22 and 23.

 55. Time, October 23,1989; Newsweek, October 30,1989; UFO
update, Omni, January 1990.

 56. U.S. News ~ World Report, "UFOs in Uncle Sam's Closet,"
October 23, 1989, p.19.

 57. Streiber, Whitley. Communion, NY: William Morrow, 1987, p.

 58. Adamski, George, lnside the Flying Saucers, NY: Paperback
Library, 1967. p. 11.

 59. Fuller, John. lncident at Exeter, cited in UFO Update, in
New Realities,1978. p.52.

 60. "Shooting Down The Flying Saucers," Los Angeles Times,
December 15,1959, Pt. Il, p. 5.

 61. Boudreaux, Richard. "South Americans Take UFOs Seriously,"
Los Angeles Times, November 29, 1978. Pt. VI, p. 7.

 62. See note 6, p. 224.

 63. Randles, Jenny. The UFO Conspiracy, NY: Sterling Pub. Co..
1990, p. 105.

 64. See note 1, p. 267.

 65. See note 1, p. 255.

 66. Ibid. p. 259.

 67. Ibid. p. 269.

 68. See note 4, p. 216.

 69. Blundell, Nigel, and Roger Boar. The World's Greatest UFO
Mysteries, NY: Berkeley Books, 1990, p. 175.

 70. Ibid. p. 176.

 71. Ibid. p. 179.

 72. Vallee. Jacques. The Invisible College, NY: E. P. Dutton,
1975 p. 6.

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 A P P E N D I X  H



 Above Top Secret, Timothy Good, William Morrow, NY, 1988.

 Aids to Identification of Flying Objects, Air Technical Intelligence

 Center, Gov't Printing Office, Supt. Doc., 1966.

 Aliens Among Us, Ruth Montgomery, Fawcett Crest, NY, 1985.

 Aliens from Space--The Real Story of UFOs, Donald E. Keyhoe,
 Doubleday, NY, 1972.

 Beyond Earth. Man's Contact with UFOs, Ralph and Judy Blum, Bantam
 Books, NY, 1974.

 Breakthrough to Creativity, Shafica Karakulla, M.D., De Vorss
 and Co., Marina Del Rey, CA, 1967.

 Chariots of the Gods, Erich Von Daniken, Putnam, NY, 1970.

 Clear Intent, Barry Greenfield, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ,

 Communion, Whitley Streiber, William Morrow, NY, 1987.

 Extraterrestrial Visitations from Prehistoric Times to the
 Present, Henry Regnery Co., Chicago, 1970.

 Flying Saucers--Letters to the Air Force on UFOs, Bill Adler, Dell
 Books, NY, 1967.

 Flying Saucers--Serious Business, Frank Edwards, Lyle Stuart Inc.,
 NY, 1966.

 Identified Flying Saucers, Robert Lofton, David McKay Co., NY,1968.

 In Search of Extra Terrestrials, Alan Landsburg, Bantam Books, NY,

 Inside the Flying Saucers, George Adamski, Paperback Library, NY,

 Insights for the Age of Aquarius, Gina Cerminara, Theosophical Pub.
 House, Wheaton, IL, 1973.

 Intruders, Budd Hopkins, Random House, NY, 1987.

 Mysteries Of the Unexplained, Readers Digest, Readers Digest Assn.,
 Pleasantville, NY, 1982.

 New Psychic Frontiers, Walter and Mary Jo Uphoff, Colin Smythe Ltd.,
 and Bolger Pubs., Minneapolis, MN, 1975.

 Project Blue Book, Brad Steiger, Editor, Ballantine, NY, 1976.

 Strange World, Frank Edwards, Lyle Stuart, NY, 1965.

 Strangers Among Us, Ruth Montgomery, Fawcett Crest, NY, 1979.

 The Intruders, Budd Hopkins, Random House, NY, 1987.

 The Invisible College, Jacques Vallee, E.P. Dutton, NY, 1975.

 The Possibility of Intelligent Life Elsewhere in the Universe,
 U.S. House Committee on Science and Technology, Govt. Printing  
 Office, 1975.

 The Roswell Incident, William L. Moore, Grosset and Dunlap, 1980.

 The UFO Conspiracy--The First Forty Years, Jenny Randles, Sterling
 Pub. Co., 1989.

 The Unexplained, Allen Spraggett, Signet, NY, 1967.

 The World's Greatest UFO Mysteries, Nigel Blundell and Roger Boar,
 Berkeley Book, 1990.

 The World's Last Mysteries, Readers Digest, Pleasantville, NY, 1978.

 UFO Abductions, Philip Klass, Prometheus Books, Buffalo, NY, 1989.

 UFO . . . Contact from the Pleiades, Lee and Brit Elders, Genesis III
 Pub. Co., Phoenix AZ, 1984.

 UFOs From Behind the Iron Curtain, lan Hobana and Julien Weverbergh, 
 Bantam Books, NY, 1975.

 UFOs Over the Americas, Jim and Coral Lorenzen, Signet Books, NY, 

 UFOs--A Scientific Debate, Carl Sagan and Thornton Page, Cornell
 University, NY, 1972.

 We Are Not The First, Andrew Thomas, Putnam & Sons, NY, 1971.

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 Copyright ~ 1992, Fire Engineering Books & Videos
 Park 80 West, Plaza Two, 7th floor, Saddle Brook, Nl 07662


DR. WILLIAM M. KRAMER has baccalaureate degrees in Industrial
Management  and Business Administration, a master s degree in
Industrial Relations, and a  Ph.D. in Administrative Management
from the University of Cincinnati; and  a master's degree in
Business Administration from Xavier University. He has  edited
numerous course guides for the Open Learning Fire Service
Program and  published numerous fire service journal articles.
He is chairman of the seven-  University National Open Learning
Educational Consortium, Associate  Professor and Director of the
Open Learning Program at the University of  Cincinnati, a
District Fire Chief for the City of Cincinnati and the
educational  commentator for American Heat video productions.

CHARLES (CHUCK) BAHME is the author of many fire service
articles as well as  books, including the Handbook of Disaster
Control, predecessor to the Fire  Officer's Guide to Disaster
Control, Fire Service and the Law, Fire Officer's  Guide to
Dangerous Chemicals, Fire Protection for Chemiculs, Fire
Officers  Guide to Emergency Action, Firemen's Law Book, and
Fire Officer's Guide to  Extinguishing Systems. After responding
to a devastating chemical explosion  in the City of Los Angeles
he wrote its Dangerous Chemicals Code, the first  comprehensive
set of regulations ever adopted by any municipality pertaining
to hazardous materials. Following his naval service in World War
II he was  called upon to write U. S. Navy: Structural Fire
Fighting for the Chief of Naval  Operations.  In thirty years of
service with the City of Los Angeles Fire Department he
advanced through the ranks from recruit to deputy fire chief,
the rank he held  at the time of his retirement. During that
period he augmented his A.B. degree  from UCLA with a Juris
Doctor degree from Southwestern University. Through  the same
years he served with the U. S. Navy: six years of active duty
during  World War II and the Korean conflict, and twenty-eight
years with the Naval  Reserve, in which he retired with the rank
of Captain.  Chief Bahme is an attorney at law with admission to
practice in California,  before federal district courts, the
Supreme Court of the United States, and the  highest court of
military appeals. He has taught courses in fire protection engi-
 neering a UCLA, and fire administration at USC and various
state, national, and  international conferences. He has served
in Europe and the Far East for the  Department of Defense and
the U. S. State Department. In recent years he has  been
teaching a course in Political and Legal Foundations of Fire
Protection as  a faculty member of Cogswell College's Open
Learning Fire Service Program.  He has also served as the NFPA's
Fire Extinguishing Specialist, its Western  Representative, and
as chairman of its Committee on Hazardous Chemicals Fire
Fighting. Upon his moving to Lake County, California, he served
as the chairman  of his local Kelseyville fire district's board
of directors and as a disaster control  visor to his local Red
Cross chapter.

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