Ufology (calc English ufology, word formed from the initials UFO, Unidentified Flying Object, in Spanish “UFO” ‘Unidentified Flying Object’), also known in Spanish as ufology, is the study of the UFO phenomenon from the analysis of material related to it: photographs, videos, testimonies alleged sightings, radar reports, etc., in order to propose hypotheses about its origin.
UFOlogy is a research movement anomalous aerospace phenomena, which may be associated with weather events, human space technology or space technology possible extraterrestrial origin; this is related to issues such as the alleged reports of abductions, visits bedroom and phenomena of lost time, as well as crop circles “or Crop Circles (as a hypothesis attributes its creation to alien technology), mutilations cattle that occurred in different countries, the Majestic 12 project, etc.
While there can be no moment a coherent scientific explanation, in many others it has been shown that it was false or distorted facts, prepared to deceive society and have public impact in some cases.
Ufology came shortly after the great wave of observations that brought the end of World War II. On June 24, 1947, Kenneth Arnold reported nine unusual flying objects in training on Mount Rainer in Washington. He tried to inform the FBI, but finding the closed office went to the local newspaper. Journalist Bill Bequette during the interview confused the shape of objects, like a boomerang, with the description of the movement that seemed to do, ie, as saucers bouncing off the water.
Bequette suffered confusion resulted in the flying saucer household name, but that name was not liked by many scientists, including astronomer Josef Allen Hynek.
After watching Arnold, many other people also reported seeing objects flying over the sky of the United States. Faced with the possibility that, especially Soviet, foreign mills were violating US airspace administration of Harry S. Truman launched the project in 1947 Singo, to know what was true in the increasing number of observations. Two years after the military renamed the project with the name Nuisance Project, Project Grudge in English by the feeling that the Americans had toward him air forces. At the end of the mandate of Truman, 1952, investigations would be framed in the Blue Book Project. The governments of Dwight D. Eisenhower, John Fitzgerald Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, who close the project.
One of the directors of these studies, Josef Allen Hynek, gave a more generic definition for the comments, calling them Unidentified Flying Object, English “Unidentified Flying Object” or “UFO”, from which the word “Ufology” and this the Spanish term, as has been said. Although the USAF and most of the scientists involved in the issue concluded that after UFOs no unknown phenomenon of nature are hidden or are evidence of extraterrestrial presence, a small group of researchers like himself Josef Allen Hynek, they disagreed with these findings and continued investigating on their own
Etymology in the section indicated that ufology studies unidentified flying objects, therefore a precondition the existence of an “identifier” a person in most cases. To have some certainty of being in front of a UFO is required of a report or story that does not clarify the origin of what is seen. Wilding-White indicated that such report or story should contain at least six basic sections:
1. Location of the observation place, date and time of it.
2. Data of observation where the length and time lasted indicated.
3. Location of UFO with information on its angle in the sky, its orientation with respect to the four cardinal points and a drawing with the shape of the object.
4. UFO Description contributing shape, sound, color, movement, number of objects and brightness compared to another body known as the Sun, Moon, Venus (planet) or similar.
5. observer data to identify and even re-contact him by his name, address, telephone …
6. weather conditions existing at the time of observation, especially the degree of cloud cover, temperature, wind and precipitation, plus any other interesting question.
This report can be supplemented with sound recording or witnesses, then transcribe and review them as many times as necessary. But when observation has provoked reactions, such as the mobilization of some means, it is very important to gather records that may have left such means, if the report of the radar operator or air traffic control, pilots who had been on mission scramble, the tachograph ground vehicle if possible and etc.
If the device has left a trace, which Josef Allen Hynek categorized as a “meeting in the second phase” can be attached photographs, measurements, geological, biological, radioactive analysis …
As in many other disciplines where information plays an essential role, a point of great importance is the verification of data collected using various sources, in addition to the principal. This is due to many factors, including distortions caused human perception and memory
Ufology Vs SCIENCE
It has been proposed to change the name of ufology by ufolatría. For advocates of such change ufology is not a science or a discipline, but a form of religious faith. The reference is based on several points, including an avowed hope that the remarks are extraterrestrial visitation. In any case ufology is listed by several authors as Carl Sagan (1997) as a pseudoscience for the following reasons:
• The first problem that is targeted for the ufology is more than just a collecting stories lies in lack studied. All sciences an object of particular study are marked. Even very large sciences, such as biology, content focus on a particular field of the universe, for the biological case would be living things, from bacteria to chordates. Ufology, meanwhile, is based on what has not been determined, which could not be found or identified, ie, study everything that is not. Etc. One might conclude, as does Luis Ruiz Noguez, who really analyzed is the small number of cases resistant to physical, aerospace, meteorological, astronomical, psychological explanations, However, they are calling themselves ufologists, as Vicente-Juan Ballester Olmos claims that no positive cases show a pattern, or more, by which conclusions can be obtained, or a group of common characteristics. Each positive is unique, therefore a science or discipline for each generic to be nothing to look at would be necessary.
• A second reason given by detractors is that ufology other makes the burden of proof. In sciences like biology mentioned, who claims to have made a discovery must be those who provide evidence to satisfy the community after a peer review. An example might be the discovery of a living coelacanth, thought extinct animal that millions of years ago. In this case it could analyze what was left of exemplary and even capture other later. Other times, as when the okapi was discovered that allowed data confirm the discovery, as the place or date of observation were provided. Other professionals could go and corroborate the existence of a species not listed. In one of the documents ufology usually seen as evidence are photographs, but impossible to re-take someone else with another camera, because the photographed objects are no longer there, verification is impossible. In addition, any photo of the presented has been a contribution of knowledge of some kind. About being too far, others for being too blurry to be discovered caused by other known objects and others to be hoaxes. For decades there was a certain logic to the absence of detailed photos. Until the beginning of the XXI century cameras were bulky and not many people had a much less carried it with him everywhere. In the 70s it was said that had never been possible recorded or photographed an airplane or car crash when it occurs. However, with the proliferation of local television and then digital technology, millions or billions of people carry around with them cameras of a certain quality, on mobile phones and yet not an unquestionable proof of extraterrestrial visitation appears , one of the proponents of this argument is Steven Spielberg, in the 70s believer in the possibility of extraterrestrial visits and skeptical later.
• The ufology wields more persuasive than demonstrative arguments. Ricardo academic field shows Fallacy waste as the principal of such persuasive arguments. According to this argument, there is always a percentage of unexplained cases, these unexplained cases are proof that there is still something mysterious and even above the capacity of human beings. This argument has been answered stating that there is nothing abnormal in the presence of a small percentage of unsolved cases. In any discipline with sufficient number of investigations are always some that could not be clarified for different reasons. There are unexplained crimes and accidents that its causes are not known, it is not a demonstration of the existence of werewolves or other demonic being.
• Linked to the previous point, scientists have Javier Armentia indicating that ufology has not reported any knowledge. In the event that the ultimate cause were extraterrestrial visitation, ufology has not disclosed the existence of any exoplanet, nor given clues to detect any intelligent signal, and has made contributions in metallurgy, aeronautics, microelectronics, propulsion …. In 70 Avro Aircraft company investigated whether cup-shaped air could offer better performance than other configurations. United States resumed and continued to fund research prototypes, but they never approached the expected capabilities, besides being extremely unstable. One of the reasons for the meager contributions of ufology Luis Alfonso Gamez gives to indicate that the UFO literature has always lagged behind the science fiction. So messages to preserve the planet were reported before in films like “Ultimatum to the Earth” that contactees, as well as abductions, which had appeared in comic books decades before the Hill cease being uploaded to a flying saucer.
• Finally, one of the objections to the ufology is that not pursue new knowledge, but the personal gain of the best known ufologists, through creation of exoteric movements, pronunciation of conferences and publications income of all kinds. Nevertheless, skeptics authors like Luis Alfonso Gamez make an exception and recognize that you can find serious ufologists and looking to expand knowledge, but generally “the seriousness of a ufologist is inversely proportional to its volume of sales,” says the Spanish author. L. Fernando Frias has found that not just to disseminate unverified stories, it is even inventing stories as a regular and even daily practice.
• Mutual UFO Network (MUFON): International group who lives in the United States that emphasizes research and data collection on sightings.
• Erich von Däniken (with Peter Kolosimo), which attempt to combine what they consider historical evidence of extraterrestrial visitation with the hypothesis of extraterrestrial help in the evolution of humanity. In 1968 he published Chariots of the Gods ?, which would subsequently Back to the stars.
• Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS): Founded by participants in Project Blue Book and astronomer J. Allen Hynek; scientific investigation of the phenomenon, large numbers of files including former NICAP.
• PFIC: Spanish Society Research Parapsicológicas.1
• Anomaly Foundation: the first Spanish foundation dedicated to the scientific study of UFOs, from a critical point of view and close to skepticism.
• IPRI: Peruvian Institute of Interplanetary Relations, Peruvian group founded by Carlos Paz Garcia in 1955 and dedicated to the investigation of UFOs, no record of numerous sightings.
• CRIDOVNI: Commission Receiving Complaints and Investigation Unidentified Flying Objects.
• CIP: Paranormal Research Center (Spain) ufológico recent interest seeking evidence to ensure the accuracy of the phenomenon or to deny
Ancient astronaut hypothesis
The ancient astronaut hypothesis, also known as hypothesis paleocontact, argues that extraterrestrial beings have visited Earth and that these beings have been responsible, in varying degrees, the origin and development of human cultures, technologies and religions. A common variant of the idea is that most of the deities in religions, if not all, are actually aliens and their technologies were taken as evidence of his divine status.
These proposals have become popular, especially in the second half of the twentieth century by writers such as Erich von Däniken, Robert Charroux, Peter Kolosimo, Zecharia Sitchin and Robert K. G. Temple, among others.
Proponents of the “hypothesis of ancient astronauts” often argue that humans are descendants or creations of aliens who landed on Earth thousands of years ago and hybrid beings of ancient mythologies are creations of these alien beings. A related idea is that much of human knowledge, religion and culture came from extraterrestrial visitors in ancient times, where ancient astronauts acted as a “mother culture”. Defenders of the “ancient astronauts” also believe that travelers from outer space known as “astronauts” built many of the structures on earth as the pyramids of Egypt and the Moai stone heads of Easter Island or helped humans in its construction.
Proponents argue that the evidence of “ancient astronauts” comes from the gaps in the historical and archaeological records, and also maintain that incomplete explanations of historical or archaeological evidence points to the existence of “ancient astronauts”. They say the tests include archaeological artifacts as they are anachronistic or beyond the technical capabilities of historical cultures with which they are associated (sometimes referred to as “Oopart”), and works of art and legends that are interpreted as the alien or contact with extraterrestrial technologies.
Some scholars have responded that gaps in contemporary knowledge does not have to prove that such speculative ideas of ancient astronauts are a necessary conclusion. Francis Crick, the co-discoverer of the double helix structure of DNA, however, firmly believed in what he called panspermia, the idea that the Earth was “seeded” with life, probably in the form of blue-green algae, alien species intelligent, in order to ensure the continuity of life. It is believed that this could have been done in any number of planets of this class, possibly using unmanned ferries.
Thomas Gold astronomy professor suggests a “garbage hypothesis” for the origin of life. His hypothesis says life on Earth may have spread from a pile of waste products discharged by accident on Earth long ago aliens.
The series of ancient aliens television channel History Channel has the leading advocates of the “theory of ancient astronauts” and includes interviews with Giorgio A. Tsoukalos, Erich von Däniken, Dr. Steven Greer and Nick Pope
WRITERS AND PUBLICATIONS
Stories about ancient astronauts first appear in science fiction in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. The idea was proposed in a serious way by Harold T. Wilkins (1954) and received some consideration as a serious hypothesis during the sixties, and has been largely confined to the sphere of pseudoscience and popular culture since the seventies.
Ancient astronauts appear as a feature of UFO religions from space opera written in Scientology (1967), followed by the Raelian movement (1974). Mormons, whose religion was founded in 1830, believe that God is a being who lives on another planet near a star they call Kolob.
Erich von Däniken
Erich von Däniken was a leading proponent of this theory in the late 60s and early 70s, and won a large audience through the publication in 1968 of his book higher sale Would Chariots of the Gods? and its aftermath.
According to von Daniken, certain artifacts and monumental constructions required more sophisticated technological expertise that was available in ancient cultures that built them. Von Däniken maintains that these artifacts were built directly by extraterrestrial visitors or by humans who learned the necessary knowledge of such visitors. These include Stonehenge, Puma Punku, the Moai of Easter Island, the Great Pyramid of Giza, and electrical batteries of the old Baghdad.
Von Daniken claims that ancient art and iconography found all over the world illustrate air and space vehicles, non-human intelligent creatures, ancient astronauts and artifacts of an anachronistically advanced technology. Von Däniken also argues that geographically separated cultures share artistic themes, which he argues imply a common origin. An example of this is the interpretation of von Daniken of the sarcophagus lid recovered from the tomb of the ruler of Palenque in the Maya, Pacal the Great Classical era. Von Däniken said that the design represented an astronaut sitting while Maya iconography and text identifies it as a portrait of the same sovereign with the world tree (wacah chan) of Maya mythology.
The origins of many religions are interpreted by von Daniken as reactions to encounters with an alien race. According to their view, humans considered the technology of the aliens as supernatural and the aliens as gods. Von Däniken claims that the oral and written traditions of most religions contain references to alien visitors in the form of descriptions of stars and vehicles traveling through air and space. One of them is Ezekiel’s revelation in the Old Testament, which Däniken interprets as a detailed description of landing a spacecraft.
Von Daniken’s theories became famous in the United States after NBC-TV documentary In Search of Ancient Astronauts with Rod Serling as host and the film Chariots of the Gods.
Critics argue that von Daniken misrepresented data, and that many of their claims were unfounded, and that none of its major claims have been validated
The series of Zecharia Sitchin’s Earth Chronicles, beginning with The 12th Planet, revolves around Sitchin’s interpretation of ancient Sumerian writings and the Middle East, megalithic sites, and artifacts from around the world. He theorizes that the gods of ancient Mesopotamia were astronauts reality of the planet “Nibiru”, which according to Sitchin, the Sumerians believed it was a remote “12th planet” (counting the Sun, Moon, and Pluto as planets) associated with the god Marduk. According to Sitchin, Nibiru continues to orbit our sun in an orbit elongada of 3.600 years. Sitchin also suggests that the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter are the remaining pieces of the old planet “Tiamat”, which he said was destroyed in one of Nibiru orbits through the solar system. Modern astronomy has found no evidence to support claims Sitchin.
Sitchin claimed that Sumerians were written that told the story of 50 Anunnaki, inhabitants of a planet called Nibiru who came to Earth about 400,000 years ago with the intention of undermining raw materials, especially gold, to transport it back to Nibiru. Because of their small number, soon tired of his job and began to create workers for the mines through genetic engineering. After many tests, possibly created homo sapiens sapiens: the “Adapa” (model man) or Adam of subsequente mythology. Sitchin contended that the Anunnaki were active in human affairs until their culture was destroyed by global catastrophes caused by the abrupt end of the last ice age about 12,000 years ago. Seeing that humans survived and that all they had built had been destroyed, the Anunnaki left Earth after having given humans the opportunity and the means to govern themselves.
Sitchin’s work has not received support from conventional scholars and has been criticized by professionals who have evaluated their theories. Michael S. Heiser, scholar of Semitic languages, says that many of the translations that Sitchin Sumerian and Mesopotamian made of words are not consistent with Mesopotamian cuneiform bilingual dictionaries produced by ancient scribes Akkadian
In his book The Sirius Mystery, published in 1976, Robert K. G. Temple argues that the Dogon of Mali northwest preserved a history of extraterrestrial visitation that took place about 5,000 years ago. Among the evidence he cites it is the assumption advanced astronomical knowledge inherited by the tribe, descriptions and comparative belief systems with ancient civilizations such as ancient Egypt and Sumeria. His work is based largely on studies of cultural anthropologists Marcel Griaule and Germaine Dieterlen.
Their findings have been criticized by scientists who point out discrepancies in the account of Temple and suggest that the Dogon may have recently received their astronomical information, probably from European sources, and may have distorted the ethnography of the Dogon.
Shklovsky / SAGAN
In his book Intelligent Life in the Universe (1966), astrophysicists I.S. Carl Sagan Shklovski and devoted a chapter to arguments that scientists and historians should seriously consider the possibility that extraterrestrial contact occurred during recorded history. However, Shklovsky and Sagan emphasized that these ideas were speculative and that had not been tested.
Shklovsky and Sagan argued that inter-stellar travel for extraterrestrial life to less than the speed of light was a certainty when taken into consideration the technology that existed or that it was feasible in the late 60s; that repeated alien visits to Earth were plausible; and pre-scientific narratives can provide a potentially reliable way to describe contact with foreigners. In addition, Shklovsky and Sagan cited tales Uanna, a guy be fish who is credited with teaching agriculture, mathematics and the arts to the early Sumerians, as worthy of a more thorough examination as a possible instance of primitive contact due to consistency and detail.
In his book Broca’s Brain (1979), Sagan Suger he and Shklovski may have inspired the wave of books of ancient astronauts in the 70s, and disagreed with “von Daniken and other non-critical writers” who apparently they expanded these ideas not as cautious speculation but as “valid evidence of extraterrestrial contact.” Sagan argued that although many legends, artifacts, and artifacts misplaced assumptions were cited in support of the theories of ancient astronauts, “very few require more than a simple mention” and could easily be explained with more conventional theories. Sagan also reiterated its previous conclusion that extraterrestrial visits to Earth were possible but unproven, and perhaps not likely
RELIGIONS AND ufology
A UFO (English UFO religion) religion is the informal name given religions to defend the possibility of contact with extraterrestrial assumptions.
The sect is also called UFO (UFO cult), or UFO cult.
Although the beliefs of these groups are very different, the UFO religions generally believe in the existence of extraterrestrial beings who have had or are still having a dominant role in human history and that in the future mankind will be part of a galactic community. They argue that the arrival or the rediscovery of civilizations, technologies and extraterrestrial spirituality allow humans to overcome the current ecological, spiritual and social problems. They even claim that problems such as hatred, war, fanaticism and poverty will be solved with the use of superior technology and spiritual capabilities of extraterrestrials.
Such belief systems have been described as millenarian in outlook. These religions often introduce beliefs of Christianity by giving them a new interpretation, as Jesus or God are of extraterrestrial origin. Also they believe there is a conspiracy of extraterrestrial concealment organized by governments, because these would not want to lose global control. Remember that all have a sectarian character.
The UFO religions are present in technologically advanced societies, especially in the United States, Canada, France and the UK. Most were born in the fifties (Chen Tao, Scientology, Society Etérea, Unarius Academy of Science), although others did in the seventies (Raelian Movement, Church of the SubGenius, Industrial Church of the New World Comforter). In the nineties there was a renewed interest in this subject (Heaven’s Gate, Vesmírní Lidé).
This is a list of some religions that could be considered “sect UFO ‘
• SCIENTOLOGY: Created by American science fiction writer Ron Hubbard (1911-1986), considered that millions of years ago a galactic tyrant named Xenu brought to Earth millions of political prisoners, he placed near volcanoes and killed them with bombs hydrogen (which at the time Hubbard wrote these texts that had just been invented). The spirits of the dead were trapped on this planet, being the origin of human souls, which can be “liberated” by the techniques of Dianetics, a high economic cost.
• Heaven’s Gate (Gate of Heaven): controversial sect that believed that a group of aliens who were traveling in a spaceship hidden behind the Hale-Bopp comet would take their souls, for which they should put aside physical bodies. They committed suicide on March 26, 1997.
• Church of the SubGenius: religious parody that admits to being a farce, and mockingly uses the beliefs of different groups (scientology, shaverismo, David Icke) ridiculing the use of paraphernalia and UFO mythology.
• Raelian Movement: Founded in France by the broker Claude Vorilhon motor vehicles -autodenominado Rael-, who claims to be a clone. It ensures that mankind was created by extraterrestrials -a he calls elohim ( ‘gentlemen’, one of the names of the God of the Bible) – who also cloned Jesus, Buddha, Mohammed, etc., and who would get back. It aims to create an embassy in Jerusalem for elohim.
• Nation of Islam, founded in the US. UU. by Wallace Fard Muhammad (1891-¿1934?) -autoproclamado incarnation of Ala, believes that the universe is governed by a council twelve aliens, being the oldest of all Allah and reinterpreting Islam to suit their beliefs black supremacy and extraterrestrial origin of the black race.
• Nuwaubian Nation: founded by Dwight York in USA. UU., Is similar to the Nation of Islam, and believes that the world is dominated by reptilians and grays, blacks are of extraterrestrial origin and the white race it is a failed genetic experiment.
• Nazi occultism: With different backgrounds, but one of its greatest exponents was the Chilean Miguel Serrano. Consider the extraterrestrial origin of the white race or Aryan race, sometimes associated with the star Aldebaran, although other stars may be mentioned. They also argue that Hitler was in contact with the Nordic aliens and this enabled him to create some UFOs.
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